This is a picture of the parts of an acoustic guitar.
The BODY of the acoustic guitar is the large part to which the bridge and neck are attached. An acoustic guitar body is hollow, and made from cedar or spruce – both of which possess the necessary acoustic and aesthetic qualities for guitar making.
The HEADSTOCK at the top of the neck, holds the MACHINE HEADS which change the tension of the strings to get them in tune.
The strings are anchored at the BRIDGE (which also transmits the sound to the body of the guitar) and are held at the required tension by the machine heads.
The part of the bridge that actually holds the strings is called the SADDLE. The saddle is made of bone or plastic and is the point where the sound is transferred from the strings to the body.
The SOUNDHOLE plays a role in producing of the sound of the acoustic guitar. Not a lot of sound actually comes out of the sound hole but the presence of the opening allows the wood in the body to vibrate without restriction.
The NECK – which is flat at the top and curved at the back – contains the machine heads, headstock, nut, fretboard and frets. The FRETBOARD is made of wood, and the FRETS are strips of metal set along the fretboard to divide it into the necessary lengths for the guitarist to produce musical notes. When a string is held by the fingers against a fret, the string’s vibrating length is made shorter to produce a higher sound. The NUT is a small strip of hard plastic, bone or metal with grooves cut into it to hold the strings in place on the fret board.
The guitarist has a choice between playing an acoustic guitar with a plectrum, fingernails or the flesh of the fingertips. Classical and flamenco guitars are always fitted with nylon strings, and played without a plectrum.
In an acoustic guitar, the sound is made by the strings triggering vibrations in the back, sides and front of the body, through the bridge. Many acoustic guitars can be heard clearly in a large concert hall without amplification. The quality of the sound depends on the quality of the instrument and the acoustics of the hall.
A microphone can be used to amplify an acoustic guitar, and this is the usual way to amplify an expensive classical or flamenco guitar. Many acoustic guitars are fitted with pickups when they are made, but pickups can be bought from a music store and installed on the guitar.